[MERGED] Panglima Awang @ Enrique @ Ariberto : Melayu Pertama Mengelilingi DuniaPost Last Edit by winamp05 at 10-6-2012 10:07
Ada sape2 yang tahu pasal tokoh ini. Kak Timah minat nak tahu.
[ Last edited byamazed at 28-1-2009 09:22 PM ] Originally posted by TimahMulia at 6-10-2005 10:13 AM
Ada sape2 yang tahu pasal tokoh ini. Kak Timah minat nak tahu.
Enrique of Melaka
Was the first man to sail around the world a Malay?
Over the years, there has been considerable debate about who actually was the first man to sail around the world. We were all taught this historic honour belongs to Ferdinand Magellan (Fernao de Magalhaes, in his native Portuguese) who led the expedition of five ships and over 270 men out of Spain in 1519 and sailed westwards, reaching the Philippines, where he was killed. However, Magellan was thought to have travelled to as far as Sabah before, and one can argue that he had indeed actually completed circumnavigating the globe. There are also those who argue that the accolade should rightly belong to Sebastian del Cano, a mutineer from Magellan's crew, who led the one surviving ship, Victoria, and 17 other men, and limped back to Spain on September 8, 1522.
However, only one individual can truly claim to have been the first man to leave his home, sail around the globe and arrive at a part of the world where his mother tongue was spoken. That man was a Malay, Magellan's able servant and interpreter, called Enrique of Melaka or Henry the Black.
If there is any single Malay ever who has had the greatest impact on world history, it would probably be Enrique. It is therefore ironic that we know so little of the man. He is called Panglima Awang in Malay literature but there is no mention of him in any credible Malay historical records. There is brief mention of Enrique in the official Spanish crew lists, as well as Magellan's last will and testament. Almost all of the certain facts that we know of Enrique come from the most comprehensive chronicle of Magellan's voyage, the narrative by Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian volunteer who joined Magellan's crew.
Pigafetta does briefly mention Enrique's origins - he was a Malay who had lived in Melaka but was originally from 'Zamatra' (Sumatra). Magellan was among the crew of the Portuguese squadron of five ships under Diego Lopez de Sequeira which sailed into Melaka on September 1, 1509, and became the first Europeans to have contact with the Malay Peninsula. Magellan also took part in the capture of the city by the Portuguese in 1511 and it was probably then that he acquired a Malay slave, whom he gave the name Enrique.
The young Enrique may have been about 18 at the time - Magellan's will and testament made eight years later cited Enrique as being "of the age of twenty-six years, more or less". The will also stated specifically that Enrique was a "captured slave" - indicating that Enrique was not bought in a slave market by Magellan. He may have been one of the defenders of the city who was taken captive in the final Portuguese assault. Prisoners of war would have been regarded as slaves and could be divided as booty among the officers and men of the victorious Portuguese expedition. He may also have been a slave before the fall of the city. There were thousands of slaves in Melaka belonging to the merchants and Malay nobility, and Portuguese records indicate that Sultan Mahmud of Melaka alone had over three thousand 'ambarages' ('Hamba Raja' or royal slaves). Many of the 'hamba raja' were in fact prisoners of war brought back from Melaka's successful campaigns against the kingdoms of Sumatra, Enrique's birthplace.
The new slave must have been a useful guide and interpreter when Magellan then travelled to different parts of the East Indies after Melaka's capture, reaching as far as Sabah. He then sailed back to Lisbon in 1512, with his loyal Malay servant in tow, and was dispatched to the Portuguese campaigns against the Moors in Morocco. There, Magellan was wounded in battle and walked with a limp for the rest of his life. Accused of corruption while he was there, he bitterly left the service of the King of Portugal and offered his services to King Charles I of Spain in 1517. Portugal controlled all the eastward routes to the rich Spice Islands of the Malay archipelago and Magellan presented the King of Spain with his daring plan - to find a route sailing westwards to the Spice Islands, avoiding the Portuguese. It is said that he even had Enrique presented to the King and his Privy Council, to convince them that accompanying him on the voyage would be a man with the local language, knowledge and experience needed to make the voyage a success.
Up to then, it does appear that Enrique was a loyal and able servant, and that his relationship with his master was a good one - perhaps even one of friendship. It was certainly good enough for Magellan to declare in his will and testament that, upon his death, Enrique "shall be free and manumitted, and quit, exempt, and relieved of every obligation and subjection, that he may act as he desires and thinks fit." Magellan even left Enrique a comfortable share from his estate, "the sum of ten thousand maravedis in money for his support".
The Spanish king was won over with the plan. Magellan was provided with five sailing ships - San Antonio, Conception, Victoria, Santiago and his flagship Trinidad - and crews comprising over 270 men. They left the Spanish port of Sanlucar de Barrameda on September 20th, 1519 and began perhaps the most daring and historic voyage of exploration ever - a voyage whose significance can only be equaled to Man's landing on the moon 450 years later.
Across the Atlantic, down the coast of South America and upwards across the Pacific, they sailed and suffered many hardships - thirst, starvation, disease, storms, desertion, hostile natives, even mutiny. Finally, on March 16th , 1521 - eighteen months after they left Spain - they sighted Samar, the most easterly of the Philippine islands. They continued their exploration of the islands and encountered a number of natives - but Enrique's Malay was unintelligible to them and they had to communicate using sign language. Magellan must have despaired, thinking that they were still far from their goal - the islands of the Malay archipelago.
But on March 28th, a momentous event occurred. Pigafetta wrote: ".... we saw approaching two long boats, which they called Ballanghai, full of men, and in the larger was their king seated below an awning made of mats. And when they came near the captain's ship, the said slave (Enrique) spoke to that king, who understood him well."
From that moment onwards, Enrique became the sole ears and voice of this band of explorers. As they continued their voyage to the surrounding island kingdoms, it was Enrique alone who, on behalf of Magellan and the Spanish crown, spoke with kings and traders - requesting provisions, bartering goods to trade, offering messages of peace, delivering threats of war.
It was after delivering one such threat that Enrique lost his master and friend, Magellan. Magellan had befriended the ruler of Cebu, Raja Humabon and was asked to punish a large band of rebellious natives in the village of Mactan, under the leadership of a warrior named Lapu Lapu. On Saturday, the 27th of April, Magellan attacked Lapu Lapu's village with 60 men-at-arms - cannon, muskets, crossbows and steel swords against bamboo spears and poison-tipped arrows. But the small Spaniard force suddenly found itself overwhelmed by over 1,500 of Lapu Lapu's warriors. continue............
Pigafetta noted that Lapu Lapu's men were converging their attacks on the Spanish captain himself - Magellan was first struck in the right leg by an arrow and later a spear stabbed him in the arm. For some reason, his cannon had now stopped firing and, despite being pressed by attacks for nearly an hour, no reinforcements had arrived from his waiting ships. Then, many of his men began to flee for the safety of their ships. The Filipinos rushed forward and, with a wounded arm that was barely able to raise his sword in defence, the limp Magellan trailed behind his fleeing soldiers. Wading knee-deep in the surf, he was finally pierced by a spear in the right leg and he collapsed face down. A wall of spears converged upon the fallen captain and he was dead.
Enrique himself was wounded in the battle. Devastated by the death Magellan, he went into deep mourning. Pigafetta writes that "he no longer went ashore to do necessary business but was always wrapped in a blanket." A new commander was elected to replace Magellan - a Portuguese by the name of Duarte Barbosa - and he was determined to show the Malay slave that the new captain would not tolerate such behaviour. Shouting at Enrique, Barbosa told him that although his master was dead, he was not to be freed but was to remain a slave. Duarte ordered him to go ashore whenever he was needed or he would be driven away.
Pigafetta then writes that Enrique was then suspected of plotting the downfall of his ship mates but he did not elaborate on the reason behind this conspiracy. Enrique may have suspected that the captains who remained on the ships may have plotted the death of his master during the battle - intentionally not sending him any reinforcements or supporting cannon fire. He may have been enraged at Barbosa for denying him his liberty - having been promised by his master that he should be set free upon his death. He may have felt that a master whom he had loved and admired was now dead, and there was no longer any reason to remain a slave - it was now time to start a new life as a free man.
Whatever the reason - whether it was loyalty, revenge, rage or just an attempt at freedom - the plot was hatched just three days after Magellan's death. Pigafetta writes that Enrique went ashore and told Humabon that the Spaniards were about to depart immediately "but, if he would follow his advice, he would gain all their ships merchandise ... and so they plotted a conspiracy."
The next day, Enrique told the Spaniards that Humabon had prepared jewels and presents to be brought to the King of Spain and asked them to come ashore to receive these. A party of Spaniards led by Barbosa did come, accompanied as usual by Enrique, but they were attacked. A lone survivor fled back towards the ships and, when asked if there were any others who survived the attack, he said all were dead, except the interpreter.
Official Spanish records list Enrique of Melaka as one of the 27 men massacred in that attack, so we really do not know if Enrique did survive that attack, as Pigafetta claims. What we do know is that was the last we hear of Enrique in Pigafetta's diary - and he disappears into the mists of history. No one knows if he remained in Cebu, or found his way back to Melaka or maybe even returned to his homeland in Sumatra. If he had indeed made his way home, he would have arrived there much earlier than del Cano - making the Malay slave the first man ever to have sailed around the world, rather than Magellan or del Cano
One could also argue that the Spaniards may have indeed changed the official crew lists to ensure that this was not a possibility - how could a Malay slave have beaten the flower of Spanish manhood in the race around the globe? Certainly, Enrique was to be just a footnote to the heroic deeds of Magellan and del Cano that were told in countless books about this remarkable voyage written over the next few hundred years. It was only in this century that questions were raised about this Malay interpreter and his role in this historic achievement. Little was known about him even in Malaya until, in 1958, the writer Harun Aminurrashid published one of the greatest historical novels in modern Malay fiction, "Panglima Awang".
Despite there being no written evidence indicating that Enrique had any origins in or connections with the Philippines - and Pigafetta's quite clear statement that he was from Sumatra - Filipino writers and historians are now claiming Enrique as one of their own countrymen. Some suggest that he may have been abducted from Cebu and brought to Sumatra or Melaka as a slave. Others think that he may have been a member of the small Filipino community living in Melaka at the time of its fall to the Portuguese. The most convenient feature of these theories is that if Enrique was indeed from Cebu, that would without any doubt make a Filipino the first man to have sailed around the world.
The main argument behind these theories is that Enrique could speak in the language of the people inhabiting the islands around Cebu - Bisayan - and therefore must have been from Cebu himself. There is a fatal flaw in this argument - Pigafetta's narrative above does show that Enrique could not communicate at all with the natives in his first encounter with them. It was only when he spoke with royalty - in this case, their king - or with traders that they suddenly found a common language among them. This is certainly not surprising - Malay was, by then, the 'lingua franca' of the whole Archipelago, and the official language of international diplomacy and trade for the whole region. All references to Enrique in Pigafetta's chronicle have him speaking with kings, chiefs or traders - rather than the common folk who may not have known the international language of Malay.
But the continuing controversy of whether he was Malay or Filipino does not detract from the monumental achievements of this man. Burning with the unquenchable wanderlust and seafaring passion of his race, Enrique of Melaka had sailed the seas of the East Indies with his master; followed him across the Indian Ocean and around the rim of the African continent; loyally fought alongside him in North Africa; lived in the splendour of the royal courts of Portugal and Spain. He embarked upon the greatest adventure ever - to circle the globe, the final frontier; to explore strange new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations; to boldly go where no man has gone before.
Having done that, he had returned full circle, to a land where he could understand the people and they could understand him. And there is just still the possibility that this humble Malay slave was indeed the first human ever to have sailed around the world.
Pigafetta, Antonio, journal, quoted in Skelton, R.A., 'Magellan's Voyage--A narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation', New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969
Zweig, S. Magellan. 'Der Mann und seine Tat', Wien-Leipzig-Zürich, 1937 and Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1983
Pintado, M J, 'Portuguese Documents On Melaka', National Archives of Malaysia, 1993. Pernah baca bulu citer pasal Panglima Awang ni..
Kontroversi.. samada dier seorang melayu Melaka.. atau Melayu Sumatra.. atau orang Filipina..
Masa tak glamer jadi hamba tak ada org kenal.. bila dah glamer semua ngaku keturunan derang..
Walaubagaimanapun.. aku bangga dgn beliau kerana secara tak langsung telah menjadi org pertama mengelilingi dunia.. bukan setakat org melayu pertama mengelilingi dunia tetapi manusia pertama.. Dier ni di kenali sbg Panglima Awang ker Panglima Hitam.. Henry the Black??
Anak Penglima AwangTima kasih lah shahgti, ada buku2 sumber ikut bahasa ke.. Inggeris2 ni Kak Timah kurang paham le..yang Kak Timah sempat baca hanya lah Anak Panglima Awang saja.. Originally posted by TimahMulia at 9-10-2005 12:56 PM
Tima kasih lah shahgti, ada buku2 sumber ikut bahasa ke.. Inggeris2 ni Kak Timah kurang paham le..yang Kak Timah sempat baca hanya lah Anak Panglima Awang saja..
tak tau la pulak ada ka tak ada. yg paling melampau ialah sarjana dari filipina. mati2 mengaku henry the black ni bangsa pilipino. argument dia orang bila henry mendarat di filipina dia boleh berkomunikasi dgn lancar dgn orang2 filipina. hujah sarjana dari malaysia memanglah dia orang paham, sebab masa tu bahasa melayu lingua franca. semua orang kat rantau ni tahu bahasa melayu masa tu.
xpdc naik kapal mengelilingi planet bumi pd masa tu dianggap sama darjat mcm usaha manusia ke bulan tahun 70-an dulu. Masa tu manusia percaya bumi ni ada penghujung, kalau belayar ke pehujung dunia kapal boleh tergelincir jatuh. so consider xpdc ni bahaya giler utk orang zaman tu. tapi memang bahaya pun. daripada 5 buah kapal, hanya 1 kapal saja yg survive. Anak2 kapal yg lain semua mati dlm perjalanan.
Tun BandanAdakah Panglima Awang ni adalah Tun Bandan seperti yang diperkatakan dalam catatan2 sejarah..? Bhw Tun Bandan ni amat2 berani dan menyukarkan Portugis untuk masuk ke bandar Melaka kerana jambatan yang dipertahankannya? Dan, akhirnya Tun Bandan telah ditawan? Tak pulak diceritakan apa kisah Tun Bandar setelah ditawan.. Lady pun penah baca kisah panglima awang nihh masa skolah dulu. English licterature...tak silap beliau dari tanah melayu Originally posted by azmi_hisham at 7-10-2005 02:00 PM
Dier ni di kenali sbg Panglima Awang ker Panglima Hitam.. Henry the Black??
dia dikenal sbg PANGLIMA AWANGyg ada kawan baiknya iaitu PANGLIMA HITAM.
HENRY THE BLACK tu pula nama yg sinonim dgn ENRIQUE dlm bahasa ENGLISH .
Dia digelar HENRY THE BLACK oleh Englishkerana dia tak secerah orang BARAT.
**Enrique ialah nama dlm bahasa Portugis.
:) kat Perpustakaan Negara mungkin ada kut cerita PANGLIMA AWANGkarangan Harun Aminurrasyid.
Aku dah baca buku ni masa sekolah rendah lagi ..ada juga part romantik..bilamanaadik "Magellan " jatuh cinta ngan
Panglima Awang ..dan menyatakan hasrat dia nak berkahwin ngan Panglima Awang. Dengar cerita, orang melayu ialah pelaut yang handal sehingga mereka mampu belayar ke Pulau Hawaii, kini jajahan USA. ada apa2 komen tak? Mengikut buku Harun Aminurrasyid tu..Panglima Awang start pelayaran dia dari Melaka sampai Lisbon lepas tu continue ke Barat melalui selat kt Pulau Tierra Del Fuego (Selat Magellan kot), lepas tu sampai Filipina. Kat Sana Magellan mampus kena bunuh dek orang asli sana..lepas tu Awang sambung pelayaran dia balik ke Melaka. Jadi kesimpulannya, Panglima Awang lah manusia pertama belayar mengelilingi dunia!! betul tak? ada sape nak komen? Originally posted by WonBin at 11-12-2005 08:33 PM
Dengar cerita, orang melayu ialah pelaut yang handal sehingga mereka mampu belayar ke Pulau Hawaii, kini jajahan USA. ada apa2 komen tak?
Orang Melayu tu mungkin tak berapa tepat, kalau kita kata Rumpun Melayu or Melayu Polinesia or Orang Nusantara...mungkin lebih accurate. Keluarga rumpun melayu ni sangat besar, bukan saje ade kat Nusantara ni saja tapi di kepulauan Pasifik (Termasuk Hawaii), Oceania (Australia dan New Zealand), Taiwan dan Madagascar.
Beribu-ribu tahun dulu, rumpun ni telah bertebaran sekitar kawasan yang disebut di atas melalui pelayaran..dan bangsa Nusantara ni sangat terkenal sebagai pelaut yang handal hingga mampu sampai dan membuat penempatan di pulau- pulau yang jauh di tengah lautan.
Di Madagascar, mereka ni dikenali sbg orang Merina dan di New Zealand sbg orang Maori, dan di tempat lain i tak tau lagi sbb tk abis research lagi..he he. Orang Maori di New Zealand sendiri mengakui yang nenek moyang mereka adalah pelaut dari kepulauan melayu, begitu juga dengan bangsa Merina.
Kalau tak silap aku teori tentang pelayaran orang Nusantara ni mungkin didapati melalui kajian tentan bahasa yang di gunakan di tempat2 yang di sebut tu. Bahasa2 yang digunakan digunakan di kawasan ini tergolong dalam keluarga besar Bahasa Melayu Polinesia.:off:
Kalau ade silap tolong betulkan ye..
Panglima AwangDikatakan orang pertama belayar mengelilingi dunia. Nama omputih dia Black Henry. Ada sesiapa tahu tentang ni? Cerita sikit. tajuk dah ada,nanti nak kena mok nik selak belakang thread dan merge kalau jumpa done :P tapak kaki awang selamat kat muzium nsantara,melaka.aku pergi arituh.besar,cuba compare dgn tangan aku.aku igt sape lah awang selamat nie.
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v630/tuah/DSCN4966a.jpg Originally posted by tuah_r at 10-5-2006 09:50 PM
tapak kaki awang selamat kat muzium nsantara,melaka.aku pergi arituh.besar,cuba compare dgn tangan aku.aku igt sape lah awang selamat nie.
Tapak kaki Awang selamat ni, yang mana satu? Yang dalam versi citer rakyat Kelantan tu ke ada Awang Selamat yang lain lagi? Atau ada ke Awang Selamat ni - Awang = nama timangan budak2 lelaki dalam cerita2 Melayu, yang didoakan selalu selamat sedangkan dia juga mempunyai nama lain? Kalau kat Bachok Kelantan tu ada la satu tapak kaki Awang Selamat kat atas bukit. Awang Selamat yang tu pesuruh setia Puteri Saadong.. Mok Nik tentu lebih tahu.. sila terangkan...me pon dok tohu arrr
Enrique of Malaccapenah tak korang terpikir yang Enrique ni walaupun dia melayu, ada kemungkinan dia dah murtad, convert to christian? tak mungkin Magellan sayang pd si Enrique ni kalau dia still Islam.
Enrique of Malacca (Enrique in the Last Will and Testament of Ferdinand Magellan and in the muster roll; Henrich in all four extant manuscripts of Antonio Pigafetta, whose account of the circumnavigation is considered the most complete and comprehensive) may be historically significant as the first person to circumnavigate the world, a notion that stems from a complete misreading of Pigafetta and total disregard of all primary sources (Magellan's Last Will, eyewitness accounts of the circumnavigation by Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra, and Maximilian Transylvanus' secondhand account that explicitly tell he is from a Malay-speaking place and that he did not speak Cebuano.
The dispute as to whether he is originally from Sumatra in Indonesia, Malacca in Malaysia or Cebu in the Philippines can easily be resolved by going to eyewitness accounts where his origin is precisely and explicitly stated. Magellan's Last Will and Testament refers to him as "Enrique, mulatto" native of Malacca. Pigafetta says he was from Zamatra, formerly called Traprobana, 16th century name for Sumatra. (Taprobana in Ptolemy's map is the name of present-day Ceylon.) These two by themselves completely belie the notion Enrique was from Cebu.
Magellan says in his Will that Enrique was more or less 26 years old at the time of the execution of the document, August 24, 1519. So when Magellan bought him in the slave market of Malacca sometime in 1511 he must have been around 18 years old. He must have had a good ear for languages as he learned Portuguese from Magellan; and perfect Spanish, according to Maximilian, and quite probably Italian.
He has been given the appellation of Panglima Awang in the novels of the Malaysian Harun Aminurashid. This is an invention which is the domain of fiction, not history. THERE have been claims that Enrique de Malacca (as he is listed in the Seville archives and in the chronicles of that historic journey) was actually a native of Cebu province. This conclusion may have come about because in chronicler Antonio Pigafetta's account (by the way, he was not Venetian but Vicentian, having been born in Vicenza, according to Vicente de Jesus' e-mail correction), we are told that after a week in Homonhon Island, Ferdinand Magellan with his three ships headed southwest, deeper into the archipelago. The following day they saw an island and as they approached, a small boat with warriors came by to greet them.
Enrique "addressed them in a Malay dialect, and to Magellan's astonishment, the men appeared to understand him and replied in the same tongue. No one, not even Magellan knew how Enrique managed to converse with the islanders..." Whether this was the Cebuano dialect or a language used by traders around Southeast Asia is something we will never know. What we have is conjecture. It is a matter of record that Magellan bought Enrique 10 years earlier in Malacca, where he was baptized, and he followed Magellan to Africa and to Europe. He could have come from the Philippine archipelago, having been captured as a child by Muslim raiders and sold in the slave mart. Whether he was originally from here or from another country, he may hold the distinction of being the first circumnavigator of the globe.
Magellan, on the other hand, was like one of those tragic heroes with a fatal flow in his character. It could have been his quest for glory, his reckless conduct (he unnecessarily risked lives in the crew's point of view), his foolhardiness, his belligerent attitude where he could have been diplomatic, his seeming conviction that he was omnipotent -- all of these eventually led to his death. Bergreen believes that Magellan's "thirst for glory, under cover of religious zeal, led him fatally astray."
On the other hand, there is a suspicion that the strange behavior of the crew could be evidence of their final mutiny. When Magellan landed to confront the forces of local chieftain Lapu-Lapu in Mactan Island, the gunners aboard the ships were supposed to cover them with fire. It is possible that the low tide prevented them from coming closer, but neither did they send reinforcements in their longboats when they saw their captain and the men in trouble. It was the Cebu people who finally intervened, but either the crewmembers refused to come to Magellan's aid or the officers ordered them to stay put.
His death led to infighting among the officers as to who was to succeed him and although Duarte Barbosa, Magellan's brother-in-law, and Juan Serrano, a Spanish captain, were voted as captains, there were dissenters. One of them was Enrique who had been promised his liberty by Magellan. Claiming that he was now free, he refused to obey orders to leave the "Trinidad" and negotiate with the natives. The new leaders of the expedition though were in need of his linguistic and diplomatic skills.
According to Pigafetta's account, Barbosa told Enrique that he would not be set free and that when they returned, he would still be the slave of Beatriz, Magellan's wife. In Sebastian Elcano's account, it was Serrano and not Barbosa who abused him, declaring that he was still a slave even if his master had died and threatening to whip him if he didn't obey and go ashore. Enrique, highly incensed, stalked off.
Both Pigafetta and Elcano believed that Enrique sought out Humabon and schemed against the armada. He may have convinced the Cebu ruler that the Spaniards were plotting against them and were "endlessly greedy."
Whatever Humabon's motives -- whether he believed that Magellan was his protector, and that now that the latter was dead, Lapu-Lapu would come after him and there would be no one to defend him, or he thought that he could take over the ships and the merchandise -- we will never know. What we do know is that on May 1, Humabon invited the officers to a banquet. Over 30 men accepted, a quarter of the entire crew, including Barbosa and Serrano. Luckily Pigafetta, wounded in the Battle of Mactan where he fought by Magellan's side, stayed behind nursing a swelling wound.
In Gines de Mafre's account, the men on board heard shouts and groans and saw armed men attacking the crew. Twenty-seven died, while the priest and Serrano were captured. A few were able to swim to the ship and they prepared to sail.
The Cebu people brought Serrano to the shore and offered to exchange him for ransom. The ransom consisted of an iron gun, but as soon as this was given them, they asked for more and this continued until the men on board gave up despite Serrano's pleas. Serrano, stranded on the shore, confirmed that Barbosa and San Martin were dead. It is believed that soon after, he perished along with the rest.
Their last glimpse of the island was of the Cebu people "tearing down the cross on the mountaintop and smashing it to bits." At this point, Enrique disappears from history, as do Humabon and Lapu-Lapu.
Only 115 of the 260 who had sailed from Sanlucar de Barrameda remained. In the end only, 18 would make it back.
ref: INQ7.net. About Enrique - May 15, 2004, Harper, L. Bambi. Retrieved 2006, Sept 16, from the World Wide Web: http://www.inq7.net/opi/2004/may/15/opi_blharper-1.htm mmm sah enrique nie masuk kristian
lgpun masa maggelan beli enrique
umur enrique br 18 tahun kot
masih muda .......
so dia dibaptistkan ...... n covert ke kristian
kat blog ada kata enrique leh bertutur dlm bahasa bisayan
bisayan tu bahasa ape? How the Nusantao maritime trading network influenced the world.
Monday, July 24, 2006
Black Henry, or Enrique de Malacca (Glossary)
Black Henry, aka Henry the Black, Enrique de Malacca and Henry of Malacca is often said to be the first person to truly circumnavigate the globe in known history.
Taken as a slave by Magellan during his stay in the East Indies, Enrique was described as a "mulatto" and is said variously to have come from Malacca, "Taprobana," or "Zamatra."
There is though, as mentioned previously in this blog, a good argument for giving Enrique at least a partial Bisayan ancestry from the central Philippines.
The Italian and Yale manuscripts of Pigafetta's journal during Magellan's voyage, give lists of not only Malay but also Bisayan words. These lists are attributed to Enrique, who also displayed in-depth knowledge of local customs and traditions upon landing in the Bisayan islands.
Also, it is rather curious that Magellan, who had pre-planned his course to what is now known as the Philippines, would just coincidently happened to have a servant onboard who spoke the local dialect!
Political situation before Magellan's circumnavigation
In the decades leading up to Magellan's voyage, the "New World" had been divided by the papal Line of Demarcation which set up a race for the control of the East Indies between Portugal and Spain, the two great exploring nations of the time.
One of Spain's stragegies starting with Columbus was to approach the East Indies from the East by sailing West from Europe.
In the East Indies, on the other hand, the Lusung kingdom was apparently quickly developing ties with the Portuguese through their merchants, pilots, sailors and other agents in Malacca, Brunei and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. These links are attested up until the mid-16th century.
Further south from Lusung, in the central Philippines the Cebuano kingdoms were on the ascent since when Magellan arrives in the area we hear that the Sugbu (Cebu) king had trade relations as far as Siam in the West.
About a decade earlier, Magellan had obtained Enrique when the latter was 12 to 18 years old and the latter was quickly baptized in the Christian faith. Magellan may have taken his servant on his mysterious voyage further east of Malacca possibly together with his friend Francisco Serr?.
Did Enrique provide Magellan during this trip with information on the Cebuano kingdoms setting up the future voyage to what is now known as the Philippines from the East?
We know that Spain used its relations in the Bisayas to build alliances and to Christianize the inhabitants setting up the future invasion of Luzon.
Giovanni Battista Gesio of Naples, the astrologer and advisor of King Philip II of Spain told the king that Luzon was 'the key to the entire east', and should be regarded as highly as Flanders or Italy.'
He may have been simply echoing Magellan's much-earlier beliefs. But by Gesio's time, Lusung's relations with the Portuguese had apparently soured, and the kingdom itself had serious internal divisions. It was ripe for the taking.
When Magellan renounced allegiance to Portugal after King Manuel's refusal to promote him and reassign him to the East Indies, it is not clear whether Magellan had ever brought to the king a circumnavigation proposal.
However Magellan, bringing with him Enrique and others, did present such a plan to Charles I of Spain. By this time, Enrique could speak Portuguese and Spanish, in addition to Malay and Bisayan. Later he may have also learned Italian.
After four expeditions to the Philippines following Magellan's discovery, Philip II ordered Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to occupy the islands for Spain. This Legazpi did with the aid of Cebuano Rajah Sikatuna of Bohol who helped the Spaniard force King Tupas of Cebu to submit to Spain.
Legazpi then obtained the Cebuano units that formed the backbone of his invasion force for Luzon. Here he also managed to exploit internal divisions with Lusung and enlisted the rajahs Soliman, Matanda and more reluctantly Lakandula, to help reduce the 'Moro' resistance in Pampanga and Bulacan.
Looking at this entire scenario it seems likely that Enrique's ability to act as interpreter and informant on Magellan's landing in the central Philippines was not an accident.
Ironically, Enrique rebelled against his master at Cebu and apparently stayed on with the king of that island after Magellan's death.
Paul Kekai Manansala
Goodman, David C. Power and Penury: Government, Technology and Science in Philip II's Spain, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 63.
Lach, Donald F. Asia in the Making of Europe: The Century of Discovery. Book 2, University of Chicago Press, 1994.
ref : Quest of the Draong and Bird Clan: Black Henry, or Enrique de Malacca (Glossary). Retrieved: 2006, Sept 17 from the World Wide Wbe:http://sambali.blogspot.com/2006/07/black-henry-or-enrique-de-malacca.html