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Sejarah Bangsa Mongol

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Post on 9-5-2006 12:15 PM |All posts

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Ada yang punya informasi sejarah kekuasaan bangsa Mongol mulai dari Genghis Khan sampe Kublai Lhan juga wilayah kekuasaan dan  pengaruh dari kekuasaan Bangsa Mongol terhadap wilayah pendudukkannya
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Post on 13-5-2006 01:31 PM |All posts
rasanyer topik ni da dibincangkan
ermm .. try ler selak2 kat page belakang ...
kalau xde ... maybe da hilang .. sebb x digest ...
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Post on 14-5-2006 12:00 AM |All posts
Yalah dulu ada. Hami ingat dah hilang bila dimergekan dulu. Sayang sekali.
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Post on 14-5-2006 12:57 AM |All posts
kalau x salah ada cite pasal
bangsa mongol nie nak jajah negara Hungary
tp x dpt sebb ketua diorg kene bunuh pd mlm perkawinan diorg
ada yg ngatakan sume nie sabotaj ....
ntah ler tul ke idak .. sebb sume cite tanpa bukti yg kukuh
kalau rajin ... leh check kat wikipedia ....
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Post on 15-5-2006 10:11 AM |All posts
bisa cari linknya lagi nggak ya
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Post on 15-5-2006 10:59 AM |All posts
Originally posted by fly_in_d_sky at 14-5-2006 12:57 AM
kalau x salah ada cite pasal
bangsa mongol nie nak jajah negara Hungary
tp x dpt sebb ketua diorg kene bunuh pd mlm perkawinan diorg
ada yg ngatakan sume nie sabotaj ....
ntah ler tul ke idak ...


tu bukan bangsa mongol tu tetapi Bangsa Hun di china dikenali sebagai Xia
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Post on 15-5-2006 11:07 AM |All posts
monggol empire ... i admire them a lot ... an empire that bulit by war but ruled by law ... huhu ~
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Post on 23-5-2006 11:48 AM |All posts
empire yg kuat tp bodoh.....akal hanya taruk kat pedang...
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Post on 23-5-2006 02:49 PM |All posts
:hmm::hmm::hmm::hmm::hmm:
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Post on 24-5-2006 12:52 AM |All posts
no comment tp yg pasti mase pemerintahan kublai khan rakyat china idup senang....x mcm akhir zmn pemerintahan dinasti song....
Hrs ada rasa bersyukur, bila ujian menjelma
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Post on 24-5-2006 11:40 AM |All posts
Pada Hami, sudah tentu bukan calang2 orang/kaum yang dapat mengembangkan empayer ke merata rantau Asia dan Eropah pada masa itu. Mereka juga ada sampai ke Indonesia buat seketika.  Dari satu sudut sudah tentu mereka dipandang ganas. Tetapi adakah lain2 empayer seperti Rom atau juga kumpulan Knights Templars di Timur Dekat tidak ganas?

Benar, ramai yang gentar akan mereka. Legenda Jerman mengataka mereka adalah satu kaum Bani  Israel yang hilang ......jadi ini telah memberi sebab kepada mereka membunuh orang2 Yahudi diperbatasan dengan tuduhan menyeludup senjata. Orang2 Hungary pula memanggil mereka "dog-faced Tartars". Seorang paderi Pranchis ada memberi diskripsi bagaimana rakusnya soldadu2  Mongol dan putera2 "dog-headed" mereka. Pihak gereja juga tidak ketinggalan . Mereka mengaitkan Mongol dengan Mogogoli, anak kepada Magog. Cina pula telah lama membina tembok besar untuk mengawal  jajahan mereka dari orang2 "barbarian".

Asal usul Mongol adalah satu kaum yang amat rendah (humble). Apabila dibandingkan dengan pencapaian mereka, kita boleh merasakan betapa mustahilnya itu semua! Oleh itu ada banyak yang boleh dipelajari dari pembangunan mereka sebagai satu negara(nation) yang pada suatu masa itu meluas sehingga 1/3 dunia yang diketahui manusia.

Kalau ada masa, Hami akan cuba ceritakan sedikit tentang mereka dari perspektif Hamilah.............

[ Last edited by  hamizao at 24-5-2006 11:43 AM ]
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Post on 24-5-2006 12:25 PM |All posts

Reply #11 hamizao's post

yang pasti satu masa dulu mereka dah berjaya menakluki hampir seluruh asia dan hingga ke eropah
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Post on 24-5-2006 12:44 PM |All posts
Originally posted by ShadowChaser at 24-5-2006 12:25 PM
yang pasti satu masa dulu mereka dah berjaya menakluki hampir seluruh asia dan hingga ke eropah


Mengikut cerita novel 'Poland ' oleh James Michener mongol sampai ke dataran Poland dan menewaskan kerajaan Poland waktu itu. Berlakulah pembunuhan beramai2 dan kaum wanita dirogol. Jadi tak hairanlah orang2 Poland ni ada perwaktakan oriental.:hmm::hmm:

[ Last edited by  thamrong at 24-5-2006 11:53 PM ]
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Post on 24-5-2006 02:01 PM |All posts
nak takluk...........tp alhamdullilah.....Islam berkembang tanpa ingin kan perperangan..dan adil .
Hrs ada rasa bersyukur, bila ujian menjelma
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Post on 24-5-2006 07:50 PM |All posts
tapi korang kener ingat yg baghdad penah di hancurkan oleh tentere mongol nih.semuar salah si gabenor islam kat samarkhand tuh.saper suruh bunuh konvoi perdagangan yg gengis khan antor.kan satu negare hancur di buat nyer.
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Post on 24-5-2006 08:16 PM |All posts
Pada penghujung kurun ke-12, Mongol adalah  satu puak normad diantara beberapa puak yang diam di dataran tinggi di tengah2 Asia Tengah. Dataran ini dilindungi oleh banjaran2 gunung2 seperti Altai dan Tien Shan di sebetah barat, hutan2 sejuk Siberia di sebelah utara, Gurun Gobi di sebelah selatan dan Pergunungan khinghan di sebelah timur dari serangan2 luar buat berkurun2.

Akan tetapi geografi gurun tinggi itu menyebabkan penghidupan yang  sentiasa berpindah2 untuk mencari cuaca dan keadaan yang lebih sesuai. Kekadang mereka juga bertembong dengan puak2 normad yang lain. Iklim amat ekstrim
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Post on 24-5-2006 11:38 PM |All posts
aku ada terbaca.. ikut pembahagian bangsa .. ada 3 bangsa utama yg jadi origin bangsa2 lain..

caucasoid(?).. european
negroid.. african
mongoloid.. asian..

adakah bermaksud bangsa asia ni asal-usul dari bangsa mongol?
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Post on 25-5-2006 12:11 AM |All posts
Originally posted by thamrong at 24-5-2006 12:44 PM


Mengikut cerita novel 'Poland ' oleh James Michener mongol sampai ke dataran Poland dan menewaskan kerajaan Poland waktu itu. Berlakulah pembunuhan beramai2 dan kaum wanita dirogol. Jadi tak ha ...



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Post on 25-5-2006 03:10 AM |All posts
Genghis Khan (c. 1162[1]August 18, 1227)  (also spelled as Chengez Khan in Turkic ,Chinggis Khan, Jenghis Khan, Chinggis Qan, etc.)was the founder of the Mongol Empire (1206
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:14 AM |All posts
Family
Main article: Family tree of Genghis Khan
Genghis was related through his father to Qabul Khan, Ambaghai and Qutula Khan who had headed the Mongol confederation under Jin Dynasty patronage [citation needed] until the Jin switched support to the Tatars in 1161 and destroyed Qutula Khan. Genghis' father, Yesugei, khan of the Borjigin, and nephew to Ambaghai and Qutula Khan, emerged as the head of the ruling clan of the Mongols, but this position was contested by the rival Tayichiud clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai. When the Tatars, in turn, grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin moved their support from the Tatars to the Kerait.

Temjin had three brothers, Imaad (or Qasar), Khajiun, and Temge, and one sister, Temlen (or Temulin), as well as two half-brothers, Bekhter and Belgutei.

Genghis Khan's empress and first wife Borte bore him four legitimate sons, Jochi (1185
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:14 AM |All posts
Childhood
Based on legends and later writers, Temjin's early life was difficult. His father delivered him to his future wife's family when he was only nine. He was supposed to live there until he reached the marriageable age of 12. Shortly thereafter, his father was poisoned by the neighboring Tatars while returning home. This gave Temjin a claim to be the clan's chief, though his clan refused to be led by a boy and soon abandoned him and his family.

For the next few years, he and his family lived the life of impoverished nomads, surviving primarily on wild fruits, marmots and other small game. In one incident, Temjin murdered his half-brother Bekhter over a dispute about sharing hunting spoils. Despite being severely reproached by his mother he never expressed any remorse over the killing. In another incident in 1182, he was captured in a raid by his former tribe, the Ta'yichiut, and held captive. The Ta'yichiut planned on executing Temjin, but he escaped with help from a sympathetic captor, the father of Chilaun, a future general of Genghis Khan. His mother, Hoelun, taught him many lessons in survival in the harsh landscape and even grimmer political climate of Mongolia, especially the need for alliances with others, a lesson which would shape his understanding in his later years. Jelme and Borchu, two of Genghis Khan's future generals, joined him around this time. Along with his brothers, they provided the manpower needed for early expansion and diplomacy for Temjin.

Temjin married Börte of the Konkirat tribe around the age of 16, being betrothed as children by their parents as a customary way to forge a tribal alliance. She was later kidnapped in a raid by the Merkit tribe, and Temjin rescued her with the help of his friend and future rival, Jamuka, and his protector, Wang Khan of the Kerait tribe. She remained his true love and only empress, although he followed tradition by taking several morganatic concubines. Börte's first child, Jochi, was born roughly nine months after she was freed from the Merkit, leading to questions about the child's paternity - although Genghis fiercely contended that Jochi was his son.

Temjin became blood brother (anda) with Jamuka and thus the two made a vow to be faithful to each other for eternity
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:15 AM |All posts
The main opponents of the Mongols by around c. 1100 were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north the Tanguts, the Jin and Tatars to the east. By 1190, Temjin and his advisors had united together the Mongol confederation only. As an incentive for absolute obedience and following of his code of laws, the Yassa code, he promised civilians and fighters wealth from future possible war spoils. However the exact words of the Yassa are unknown because it was never found.

Temjin began his slow ascent to power by allying himself with his father's anda (sworn brother or blood brother). Temjin's ally was Toghrul, who was a blood brother of Genghis's father, Khan of the Kerait and better known by the Chinese title Wang Khan which the Jin Empire granted him in 1197. Toghrul's son Senggum was jealous of Temjin's growing power and he allegedly planned to assassinate Temjin. Toghrul, though saved on multiple occasions by Temjin gave in to his son [6] and adopted an obstinate attitude towards collaboration with Temjin. Temjin learned of Senggum's intentions, eventually defeated him and his loyalists. One of the ruptures later between Toghrul and Temjin was the refusal of Toghrul to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi, the eldest son of Temjin, which signified disrespect in the Mongol culture. This act probably led to the split and the prelude of the war between both factions. Toghrul allied himself with Jamuqa, Temjin's blood brother, or anda, and when the confrontation took place, the internal divisions between Toghrul and Jamuka, as well as the desertion of many clans that fought on their side to the cause of Temjin, led to Toghrul's defeat. This paved the way for the fall and extinction of the Kerait tribe.

The next direct threat to Temjin was the Naimans, with whom Jamuka and his followers took refuge. The Naimans did not surrender, although enough sectors again voluntarily sided with Temjin. In 1201, a Khuriltai elected Jamuka as Gur Khan, universal ruler, a title used by the rulers of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. Jamuka's assumption of this title was the final breach with Temjin, and Jamuka formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, however, several generals abandoned Jamuka, including Subutai, Jelme's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamuka was finally captured in 1206 after several shepherds kidnapped and turned him over to Temjin.

According to the pro-Genghis histories, Temjin generously offered his friendship again to Jamuqa and asked him to turn to his side. Jamuqa refused and asked for a noble death, i.e. without spilling blood, which was granted (his back was broken). The rest of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai (or Subedei), a member of Temjin's personal guard who would later become one of the greatest commanders in the service of the Khan. The Naimans' defeat left Genghis Khan as the sole ruler of the Mongol plains. All these confederations were united and became known as the Mongols.


From Temjin to Genghis Khan
By 1206, Temjin managed to unite the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Uyghurs, Keraits, Tatars and disparate other smaller tribes under his rule through his charisma, dedication, and strong will. It was a monumental feat for the "Mongols" (collectively referred to as such), who had a long history of internecine dispute, economic hardship, and pressure from Chinese dynasties and empires. At a Kurultai, a council of Mongol chiefs, he was acknowledged as "Khan" of the consolidated tribes and took the title Genghis Khan. The title Khagan was not conferred on Genghis until after his death, when his son and successor, Ögedei took the title for himself and extended it posthumously to his father. This unification of all confederations by Genghis Khan established peace between previously warring tribes. The population of whole Mongol Nation was around 200,000 people including civilians with approximately 70,000 soldiers at the formation of unified Mongol Nation.

(See below for possible meaning of his unique title)
]
]
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Khagans of the Mongol Empire

[ Last edited by  hakimono at 25-5-2006 03:42 AM ]
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:15 AM |All posts
First war with Western Xia
The Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan in 1206 was bordered to the south by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, who then ruled North China, and to the west by the Xia. Temjin organized his people and his state to prepare for future battle with the Western Xia, Xi Xia, that was closer to the Mongol border. He also knew that Jin Dynasty had a young ruler who would not come to the aid of Tanguts of Xi Xia. This is what happened when the Tanguts asked the leader of Jin Dynasty for help and was refused. [7]

As well, the Jurchen had grown uncomfortable with the newly-unified Mongols for the first time. It may be that some trade routes ran through Mongol territory, and they might have feared the Mongols eventually would restrict the supply of goods coming from the Silk Road. On the other hand, Genghis Khan also was eager to take revenge against the Jurchen for their long subjugation of the Mongols. For example, the Jurchen were known to stir up conflicts between Mongol tribes and had even executed some Mongol Khans.

Eventually, Genghis Khan led his army against Western Xia and conquered it, despite initial difficulties in capturing its well-defended cities. By 1209, the Tangut emperor acknowledged Genghis as overlord.

In 1211, Genghis set about bringing the Nzhen (the founders of the Jin Dynasty) completely under his dominion. The Mongol army crossed the Great Wall of China in 1213, and in 1215 Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Yanjing (later known as Beijing). This forced the Jin Emperor Xuan Zong to move his capital south to Kaifeng.
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:16 AM |All posts
Conquest of the Kara-Khitan Khanate
Main article: Kara-Khitan Khanate
Meanwhile, Kuchlug, the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation, had fled west and usurped the Khanate of Kara-Khitan (also known as Kara Kitay), the western allies who had decided to side with Genghis. By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Tangut and the Rurzhen. Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen (20,000 soldiers) against Kuchlug, under a brilliant young general, Jebe known as "The Arrow".

An internal revolt against Kuchlug was incited by Mongol agents, leaving the Naiman forces open for Jebe to overrun the country; Kuchlug's forces were defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug fled, but was hunted down by Jebe and executed, and Kara-Khitan was annexed by Genghis Khan.

By 1218, the Mongol Empire extended as far west as Lake Balkhash and it adjoined Khwarezmia, a Muslim state that reached to the Caspian Sea in the west and to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea in the south.


Invasion of Khwarezmid Empire
Main article: Mongol invasion of Central Asia

Khwarezmid Empire (1190
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Post on 25-5-2006 03:17 AM |All posts
Second war with Western Xia and Jin Dynasty
Main article: Yuan_Dynasty#Northern_Conquest

Western Xia, Jin Empire (yellow), Song China (red) and Dali (purple) in 1142.The Mongol Empire campaigned six times against the Tanguts in 1202, 1207, 1209
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